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The 22nd North Carolina in History

" was a time when hours are compressed into minutes, hearts ceased throbbing and the blood lies dormant in your veins."
-a North Carolina soldier recalling the moments before the assault on Cemetary Ridge.

IN APRIL OF 1861  the new President,  Abraham Lincoln, calls for 75,000 troops to suppress the "insurrection" in South Carolina.  It is this action that finally pushes North Carolina into the Confederacy.  Lincoln orders North Carolina to furnish two regiments of militia for immediate service.  Governor John Willis Ellis responds immediately:
"Your dispatch is received, and if genuine, which its extraordinary character leads me to doubt, I have to say in reply, that I regard the levy of troops made by the administration for the purpose of subjugating the states of the South, as a violation of the Constitution, and as a gross usurption of power. I can be no party to this wicked violation of the laws of the country and to this war upon the liberties of a free people. You can get no troops from North Carolina."

ON MAY 20, 1861 North Carolina secedes from the Union to join the Confederate States of America. Across the state, farmers abandon their plows, lawyers put aside their books and hundreds of other men and boys leave their homes and businesses to enlist in the Confederate army.

Thus begins North Carolina's involvement in the American Civil War, which ultimately will claim the lives of more than 40,000 North Carolinians--the most of any Southern state.

I.       The 22nd North Carolina in the structure of 
         The Army of  Northern Virginia-July 1863.

II.     A short history of the 22nd North Carolina
        by veteran Lt. Graham Daves.

III.    The North Carolina Memorial in Gettysburg

IV.    Partial List of those Killed in Action of
         The 22nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment
         Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863.

Cover of North Carolina Convention Resolution of 1861

First Session in May and June, 1861.
[No. 1.]
Repeals Ordinance ratifying Constitution of the United States
We, the people of the State of North Carolina, in Convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, That the ordinance adopted by the State of North Carolina in the Convention of 1789, whereby the Constitution of the United States was ratified and adopted, and also, all acts and parts of acts of the General Assembly, ratifying and adopting amendments to the said Constitution, are hereby repealed, rescinded and abrogated.

Declares the Union of N. C. with the U. S. dissolved.

We do further declare and ordain, That the union now subsisting between the State of North Carolina and the other States under the title of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved, and that the State of North Carolina is in the full possession and exercise of all those rights of sovereignty which belong and appertain to a free and independent State. Ratified the 20th day of May, 1861.]


The Original 22nd North Carolina Battle Flag

The 22nd North Carolina Battle Flag
Honors are painted in dark blue on the obverse.
On display in The North Carolina Museum of History.

General Robert Edward Lee

General-in-Chief Robert Edward Lee

Lieutenant General Ambrose P. Hill

Major General William D. Pender

A.P. Hill
Lt. General A.P. Hill

Brigadier General A. M. Scales

Colonel W. Lee J. Lowrance
Lt. Colonel G. T. Gordon

Major General William D. Pender
Major General William D. Pender

Brigadier General A.M. Scales
Brigadier General A.M. Scales


Editorial note:

Below is a synopsis of some of the actions of The 22nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment in the War for Southern Independence. It was written by 22nd North Carolina veteran Adjutant Lieutenant Graham Daves and published originally in 1901, at the dawn of the 20th century. You will notice there are somewhat extensive listings of the staff and personnel in the regiment and an enumeration of company level constituents.

This may seem somewhat tedious and unecessary to the casual reader, but consider the view of the writer, Lieutenant Daves; the names may have been of some interest to his fellow veterans or military scholars but probably more important to Daves was that posterity review his recollection without missing the point...

The 22nd North Carolina was not an amorphous indentity lead by a few obscure and now, long dead officers...but the 22nd was a complexed undertaking needing the talents, sacrifice and, all too often, the very lives of many dedicated and patriotic individuals from many walks of life. Many of these men Lieutenant Daves would have known personally.

As you scan some of the names, take a moment to consider who they were, where they were from, where they had been and why they were there. Consider the Officers and enlisted men, they numbered well over 1,000 at the start of the Appomattox little over one hundred of The 22nd North Carolina remained. ---T.A.


22nd North Carolina Infantry
Adjutant Graham Daves

The Twenty-second Regiment of North Carolina Troops was organized in camp near Raleigh in July, 1861, by the election of the following Field Officers:

J. Johnston Pettigrew, Colonel, of Tyrrell County, then a resident of Charleston, S.C. Colonel Pettigrew had seen service with the forces in South Carolina, and commanded a regiment at the siege and capture of Fort Sumter by the Confederates in April, 1861.

General Pettigrew

General J. Johnston Pettigrew
The original Colonel of the 22nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment. Colonel Pettigrew would refuse his first promotion to Brigadier General, Pettigrew felt duty bound to complete the formation of the 22nd North Carolina.

John O. Long, Lieutenant-Colonel, of Randolph County, a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point.

Thomas S. Galloway, Jr., Major, of Rockingham County, a graduate of the Virginia Military Institute at Lexington, Va.

The commissions of the Field Officers all bore the date of 11 July, 1861.

The regiment was composed, originally, of twelve companies, but two of them, C and D, were very soon transferred to other commands, and the lettering, A, B, E, F, G, H, I, K, L and M, for the ten companies was retained.

This fact is mentioned because the lettering of the companies of this regiments as reported in the Register published by the Adjutant-General of the State in November, 1861, and in the roster of the troops published by the State in 1882, is incorrectly given.

The several companies at the time of their first enlistment, and before their organization into a regiment, adopted local names, which, as part of their history, it may be of interest to preserve:

Company A, of Caldwell County, Captain W. F. Jones, was called the "Caldwell Rough and Ready Boys";

Company B, of McDowell County, Captain Jas. M. Neal, the "McDowell Rifles";

Company E, of Guilford County, Captain Columbus C. Cole, the "Guilford Men"';

Company F, of Alleghany County, Captain Jesse F. Reeves, the "Alleghany True Blues";

Company G, of Caswell County, Captain Edward M. Scott, the "Caswell Rifles";

Company H, of Stokes County, Captain Hamilton Scales, the "Stokes Boys";

Company I of Randolph County, Captain Shubal G. Worth, the "Davis Guards";

Company K, of McDowell County, Captain Alney Burgin, the "McDowell Boys";

Company L, of Randolph County, Captain Robert H. Gray, the "Uwharrie Rifles";

Company M, of Randolph County, Captain John M. Odell, the "Randolph Hornets."

Companies C and D, which, as before mentioned, were transferred to other regiments, were named: Company C, of Surry County, Captain Reaves, the "Surry Regulators"; Company D, of Ashe County, Captain Cox, the "Jefferson Davis Mountain Rifles."

The organization of the regiment was completed by the appointment of Lieutenant Graham Daves, of Craven County, as Adjutant, 24 July, 1861; Dr. James K. Hall, of Guilford County, Surgeon, 24 July, 1861; Dr. Benj. A. Cheek, of Warren County, Assistant Surgeon, 24 July, 1861; James J. Litchford, of Wake County, Assistant Quartermaster, 19 July 1861; Rev. A. B. Cox, of Alleghany County, 6 July, 1861, Chaplain; and Hamilton G. Graham (Company I), of Craven County, as Sergeant Major.

First called the Twelfth Volunteers, the regiment was shortly after numbered and designated the Twenty-second Troops. The change was made in the Adjutant General's office at Raleigh to avoid confusion.

With the exception of the "Bethel Regiment," or First Volunteers, which served for six months only, the troops first enlisted were mustered into service for one year and were called volunteers.

The Legislature, however, also authorized the enlistment of ten regiments "for three years or the war"--eight of infantry, one of cavalry (Ninth), and one of artillery (Tenth), to be called "State Troops," and numbered one to ten.

This would have caused the numbering of ten regiments each of "State Troops" and of "Volunteers" respectively to have been the same, and the numbers of the volunteer regiments were there moved forward ten. This will explain a change in the numbering of the regiments, to include the Fourteenth Volunteers, afterwards the Twenty-fourth Troops, which might not be understood.

A duplication of this sort in the numbering of certain regiments of Georgia and South Carolina troops did actually exist and caused much confusion.

The first Captain of A Company was W. F. Jones, of Caldwell County, who was succeeded by Thos. D. Jones, of the same. The entire number of rank and file in this comapny serving at one time or another during its whole term of service was 187 men.

Company B, had for its first Captain James M. Neal, of McDowell County, and numbered rank and file from first to last 171 men.

Captain Columbus C. Cole, of Greensboro, commanded E Company, which numbered 184 rank and file, while in service.

Jesse F. Reeves, of Alleghany County, was first Captain of F Company, which numbered 160 men during its term.

J. A. Burns was Captain of G Company at the organization of the regiment, but was shortly after succeeded by John W. Graves. The company numbered in all 145 men.

Hamilton Scales, of Stokes County, was Captain of H Company, which numbered in all 200 men.

I Company's first Captain was Shubal G. Worth, of Randolph County. The company numbered 188 men all told.

Alney Burgin, of McDowell County, was first Captain of K Company;

Robert H. Gray of L Company, and John M. Odwell of M Company, which numbered respectively, during their several terms of service, 151, 178, and 146 men.

These figures are mentioned here for convenience, and represent, of course, enlistments and assignments for the whole period of the war.

At the completion of its organization the regiment numbered nearly 1,000 enlisted men. Shortly after its organization it was ordered to Virginia, and made its first halt in Richmond.

Remaining in camp there for a short time, it was next ordered to the Potomac to form part of the command of General Theophilus H. Holmes, and was first stationed at Brook's Station near Acquia Creek.

Soon, however, it marched to Evansport, a point on the Potomac river, the present Quantico Station, between the Chappewamsic and Quantico creeks, where batteries of heavy guns were to be established to blockade the Potomac below Washington.

Going into camp at this place late in September, the regiment was stationed there during the Autumn and winter of 1861-'62, on duty in the erection and support of the batteries which were in great part constructed by details of its men.


The North Carolina State "Secession Flag"
Interestingly, the so called "Secession Flag" was the first official North Carolina State Flag "The Old North State" ever had. The canton not so subtley draws the parallel between the dates of secession from the British and Federal governments. It was finally replaced by the current State Flag some 20 years later.  North Carolina State Troops carried this with or in lieu of the Confederate Battle Flag.  The 22nd North Carolina used the above flag exclusively from July 1863 through January 1864.  The 22nd lost their original Confederate Battle Flag after breaking through Federal lines on the Union right during the famous Pickett-Pettigrew Charge at Gettysburg July 3, 1863.   The 22nd used the State Flag you see here until they were reissued another Battle Flag nine months later.

There were three of these batteries at first, mounted with 9-inch Dalghren guns, smooth bore 32 and 42 pounders, and one heavy rifled Blakely gun, and they were thought to be formidable in those days.

No. 2 Battery was in part manned by Company I, of the regiment, detailed for that purpose, where it continued to serve as long as the post was occupied.

After the batteries opened, traffic by water to Washington ceased almost entirely, but the river there being about two miles wide, some craft succeeded in running the gauntlet from time to time, among others the steam sloop of war Pensacola, which passed at night.

While on duty at Evansport, about the middle of October, 1861, the following roster of the line officers of the regiment, with dates of their commissions, was returned:

Company A--Thomas D. Jones, Captain, 8 August, 1861; J. B. Clark, First Lieutenant, 8 August, 1861; Felix G. Dula, Second Lieutenant, 8 August, 1861; Wm. W. Dickson, Second Lieutenant, 8 August, 1861.

Company B--James H. Neal, Captain, 8 May, 1861; A. G. Halyburton, First Lieutenant, 8 May, 1861; J. M. Higgins, Second Lieutenant, 8 May, 1861; Samuel H. Adams, Second Lieutenant, 8 May, 1861.

Company E--Columbus C. Cole, Captain, 23 May, 1861; H. E. Charles, First Lieutenant, 23 May, 1861; W. H. Faucett, Second Lieutenant, 23 May, 1861; John N. Nelson, Second Lieutenant, 27 July, 1861.

Company F--Preston B. Reeves, Captain, 10 September, 1861; John Gambol [sic], First Lieutenant, 11 September, 1861; Horton L. Reeves, Second Lieutenant, 27 May, 1861; George Mc. Reeves, Second Lieutenant, 27 August, 1861.

Company G--John W. Graves, Captain, 11 October, 1861; J. J. Stokes, First Lieutenant, 28 May, 1861; P. Smith, Second Lieutenant, 28 May, 1861; John N. Blackwell, Second Lieutenant, 24 August, 1861.

Company H--Hamilton Scales, Captain, 1 June, 1861; Ephraim Bouldin, First Lieutenant, 1 June, 1861; S. Martin, Second Lieutenant, 1 June, 1861.

Company I--Shubal G. Worth, Captain, 5 June, 1861; E. H. Winningham, First Lieutenant, 12 August, 1861; Alex. C. McAllister, Second Lieutenant, 12 August, 1861; Hamilton C. Graham, Second Lieutenant, 15 August, 1861.

Company K--Alney Burgin, Captain, 5 June, 1861; Chas. H. Burgin, First Lieutenant, 5 June, 1861; A. W. Crawford, Second Lieutenant, 5 June, 1861; Isaac E. Morris, Second Lieutenant, 5 June, 1861.

Company L--Robert H. Gray, Captain, 18 June, 1861; Claiborne Gray, First Lieutenant, 18 June, 1861; J. A. C. Brown, Second Lieutenant, 18 June, 1861; W. G. Spencer, Second Lieutenant, 18 June, 1861.

Company M--John M. Odwell, Captain, 10 June, 1861; Laban Odell, First Lieutenant 10 June, 1861; J. M. Pounds, Second Lieutenant, 10 June, 1861; Henry C. Allred, Second Lieutenant, 10 June, 1861.

At different times during its entire term of service the following were line officers of the Twenty-second Regiment; the list is not quite complete:

Company A--Captains: W. F. Jones, Thomas D. Jones, James M. Isbell, Wm. B. Clark. Lieutenants: Joseph B. Clark, James W. Sudderth, Felix G. Dula, Wm. W. Dickson, Marcus Deal, J. W. Justice.

Company B--Captains: James M. Neal, J. T. Conley, George H. Gardin. Lieutenants: Samuel H. Adams, James M. Higgins, Robert A. Tate, S. P. Tate.

Company E--Captains: Columbus C. Cole, Chas. E. Harper, Joseph A. Hooper, Martin M. Wolfe, Robert W. Cole. Lieutenants: Andrew J. Busick, W. H. Faucett, Jas. H. Hanner, John N. Nelson, O. C. Wheeler.

Company F--Captains: Jesse F. Reeves, Preston B. Reeves, W. L. Mitchell, S. G. Caudle. Lieutenants: John M. Gambill, N. A. Reynolds, David Edwards, Horton S. Reeves, Calvin Reeves, George G. Reeves, Calvin C. Carrier.

Company G--Captains: Edward M. Scott, J. A. Burns, John W. Graves, Stanlin Brinchfield. Lieutenants: O. W. Fitzgerald, James T. Stokes, Peter Smith, J. N. Blackwell, B. S. Mitchell, Martin H. Cobb.

Company H--Captains: Hamilton Scales, Ephraim Bouldin, Wm. H. Lovins. Lieutenants: S. Martin, C. C. Smith, John K. Martin, Sam. B. Ziglar, Shadrach Martin, Joshua D. Ziglar.

Company I--Captains: Shubal G. Worth, Geo. V. Lamb. Lieutenants: Robert Hanner, Eli H. Winningham, John H. Palmer, B. W. Burkhead, Wm. McAuley, Hamilton C. Graham, Alex C. McAllister, J. S. Robbins, R. A. Glenn, R. W. Winbourne.

Company K--Captains: Alney Burgin, Chas. H. Burgin, Wm. B. Gooding, E. J. Dobson. Lieutenants: Isaac E. Morris, A. W. Crawford, J. L. Greenlee, J. B. Burgin, John M. Burgin, J. E. Bailey.

Company L--Captains: Robert H. Gray, J. A. C. Brown, Lee Russell, Yancey M. C. Johnson. Lieutenants: Claiborn Gray, Wm. G. Spencer, E. C. Harney, Oliver M. Pike, Calvin H. Welborn.

Company M--Captains: John M. Odell, Laban Odell, Warren B. Kivett, Columbus F. Siler. Lieutenants: J. M. Robbins, James M. Pounds, Henry C. Allred, Lewis F. McMasters, John M. Lawrence, A. W. Lawrence.

Besides the Lieutenants named above, the Captains of the several companies had in nearly every instance served as Lieutenants previous to their promotion. Hon. Walter Clark, now senior Justice of the Supreme Court of the State, who will compile and edit the histories of our North Carolina Regiments, was at its organization a drill master in the Twenty- second. He was then not yet 15 years of age, fresh from Colonel Tew's Military Academy at Hillsboro.

Until March, 1862, the regiment remained in support of the batteries at Evansport, in brigade at different times with the First Arkansas, the Second Tennessee, a Virginia regiment, and perhaps other regiments, under command at different times, in the order names, of Generals John G. Walker, Isaac R. Trimble, and Samuel G. French. While there the health of the men was good, except for measles, which seemed to be epidemic in all the regiments.

The batteries were frequently engaged with the enemy's gunboats, and with batteries on the Maryland side of the Potomac, and the casualties were very few.

Company I had several men wounded by the bursting of a 42-pounder gun in Battery No. 2.

While on duty at Evansport, Colonel Pettigrew was promoted Brigadier General, but feeling that his services were of more value in furthering the reenlistment and re- organization of the regiment, then near at hand, he declined the appointment--a rare instance of patriotism and devotion to the public good.

When the army fell back from Manassas and the Potomac in March, 1862, to the line of the Rappahannock, General French commanded the brigade, which took post at Fredericksburg. Soon after General French was transferred to a command in North Carolina, and the regiment was marched to the Peninsula below Richmond and shared in the Williamsburg and Yorktown campaign.

Returning to the vicinity of Richmond, and Colonel Pettigrew having been again appointed brigadier, in command of the brigade, which appointment he this time accepted, Lieutenant-Colonel Chas. E. Lightfoot, previously of the Sixth Regiment, was promoted Colonel. Under his command the regiment went into the fight at Seven Pines in May- June, 1862, in which it was heavily engaged, and its losses were severe.

General Pettigrew was here wounded and made prisoner. Colonel Lightfoot was also captured. Captain Thomas D. Jones and Lieutenant S. H. Adams were killed, besides many others, and the aggregate loss of the regiment was 147 in all.

Soon after Seven Pines the regiment was re-organized, when the following were elected Field Officers: James Connor, of South Carolina, Colonel; Captain Robert H. Gray, of Company L, Lieutenant-Colonel; and Captain Columbus C. Cole, of Company E, Major. They took rank from 14 June, 1862.

There were many changes also in the line officers. Previously Adjutant Graham Daves had been promoted Captain and assigned to duty as Assistant Adjutant-General on the general staff, and Lieutenant P. E. Charles became Adjutant.

A new brigade, too, was formed, consisting of the Sixteenth, Twenty-second, Thirty-fourth, and Thirty-eighth North Carolina regiments, and placed under the command of Brigadier-General Wm. D. Pender, in the division of General A. P. Hill.

An officer in describing the bearing of the Twenty-second at Seven Pines says:

"In all my readings of veterans, and of coolness under fire, I have never conceived of anything surpassing the coolness of our men in this fight."

In the "Seven Days' Fight" around Richmond the regiment was next engaged: First, at Mechanicsville, 26 June, in which Colonel Connor was badly wounded; at Ellison's Mill; at Gaines' Mill, 27 June, where it won the highest encomiums.

General A. P. Hill says of it in his report of the battle: "The Sixteenth North Carolina, Colonel McElroy, and the Twenty-second, Lieutenant-Colonel Gray, at one time carried the crest of the hill, and were in the enemy's camp, but were driven back by overwhelming numbers." And General Pender: "My men fought nobly and maintained their ground with great stubbornness." Next at Frazier's Farm, 30 June.

In this fight the regiment was very conspicuous and suffered severely. Among the killed were Captain Harper and Lieutenant P. E. Charles, of Company E. The latter was bearing the regimental colors at the time, and near him, in a space little more than ten feet square, nine men of the color guard lay dead. Captain Ephraim Bouldin, of Company H, was also killed.

On 9 August, the battle of Cedar Mountain was fought.

In this engagement the Twenty-second Regiment was charged by a regiment of cavalry which it easily repulsed and punished sharply. Lieutenant Robert W. Cole, of Company E, succeeded Lieutenant Charles as Adjutant.

The regiment was with Jackson in his battle with Pope of 28 and 29 August, and bore an active part at Second Manassas on 30 August. In these actions it was efficiently commanded by Major C. C. Cole, owing to the extreme sickness of Lieutenant-Colonel Gray.

Two days later it was again engaged with the enemy at Chantilly, or Ox Hill, fought in a terrible thunder storm, in which the artillery of heaven and of earth seemed to strive in rivalry. The hard service and heavy losses of this campaign may be understood by the fact that at this time there were, out of the twelve field officers of the four regiments of the brigade, but three left on duty with their commands, and some of the companies were commanded by corporals.

Pope, the braggart, had made good use of his "Headquarters in the saddle" to get out of Virginia, and had learned all about "Lines of Retreat."

The Twenty-second Regiment took part in the reduction and capture of Harper's Ferry 15 August, where it remained until the 17th, the day the battle of Sharpsburg was fought.

On that day the regiment, with the rest of A. P. Hill's division, arrived on the battlefield after a forced march of seventeen miles, in time to aid, in the afternoon, in the decided repulse of Burnside's attack at the "Stone Bridge," thereby preventing the turning of General Lee's right and saving the day to the Confederates.

Burnside Bridge 1862

Burnside Bridge 1997

Burnside's Bridge over Antietam Creek, Sharpsburg, MD (Sept/Oct 1862 photo); compared with 1997 photo. At this site General Ambrose Burnside's corps fought its way across "the Stone Bridge" over Antietam Creek. Only 400 Confederates, entrenched in the bluff overlooking the small, narrow bridge, held off 12,500 Union troops for nearly 4 hours. The 51st NY and 51st PA finally captured the "Lower Bridge" (now called Burnside's Bridge) at 1 PM on September 17, 1862. The Union Ninth Corps spent the next two hours preparing for the final assault on Sharpsburg. Interestingly, at least one of the trees bordering the bridge today existed there during the battle, thus standing today as a silent yet living witness to history.

On the night of the 18th, the army re-crossed the Potomac and on the 19th was followed by a division of Federals, which was promptly attacked by part of A. P. Hill's command, routed and driven back across the Potomac at Shepherdstown with great slaughter.

The Twenty-second took an active part in this successful fight. After the enemy had been driven into the river, a heavy fire was opened on the Confederate by the Federal batteries and sharp shooters from its north bank.

Under this fire a detachment of the Twenty-second under Major Cole lay, with very slight protection, for nearly twelve hours, and could be withdrawn only after nightfall.

Shortly after Shepherdstown, Lieutenant-Colonel Gray rejoined the regiment and Lieutenant J. R. Cole, previously of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, was assigned to the Twenty-second as Adjutant. On 22 November, A. P. Hill's Division, which had been on duty near Martinsburg and at Snicker's Gap in the Blue Ridge, (where there was constant skirmishing), marched for Fredericksburg, where it arrived 2 December, a distance of 180 miles.

In this winter march many of the men were barefooted but made merry over it. At the battle of Fredericksburg, 13 December, Jackson's Corps formed the right wing of Lee's army and Pender's Brigade was on the left of A. P. Hill's Division in the first line.

The regiment acquitted itself in this famous action in a way well worthy of its old reputation. The night of the 12th a detail from the regiment, by a bold dash, succeeded in burning a number of haystacks and houses very near to, and affording cover to the Federal lines.

Major C. C. Cole was in charge of the detail, and next day commanded the skirmish line in front of Pender's Brigade. He was ably seconded by Captain Laban Odell, of Company M, and Lieutenant Clark, of Company A.

The brigade maintained it position throughout the action, repulsing every attack upon it, but not without heavy loss. Major Cole was much complimented for his handsome action in dispersing the strong force of the enemy's skirmishers on the brigade front. General Pender was wounded, and his Aid-de-Camp, Lieutenant Sheppard, was killed in the engagement.

Some time before Fredericksburg the Thirteenth North Carolina Regiment, Colonel Alfred M. Scales, had been added to Pender's Brigade.

The winter of 1862-63 was passed in picket and other duty on the Rappahannock below Fredericksburg. Colonel James Connor rejoined the regiment while it was stationed there, but was still unfitted by his severe wound for active duty. The services of Lieutenant-Colonel Gray were lost to the regiment at this time. Always a man of delicate health, he died 16 March, 1863. Major C. C. Cole was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel and Captain Odell became Major, their commissions dating 16 March, 186[3]-- positions that these excellent officers were to hold but a short time.

At Chancellorsville in May, 1863, the regiment was in Jackson's flank attack on Hooker, and throughout the whole of the action was heavily engaged. Its losses were very severe. Colonel Cole and Major Odell were both killed, two hundred and nineteen and twenty-six out of thirty-three officers were killed or wounded, and though the regiment was distinguished by its accustomed efficiency and gallantry, nothing could compensate for this terrible destruction.

Chancellorsville was the eighteenth battle of the Twenty-second Regiment, and the most fatal.

It went through the Maryland campaign of 1863 and Gettysburg with credit.

General Wm. D. Pender had been made a Major General and was now in command of the division, and Colonel Alfred M. Scales of the Thirteenth Regiment, was promoted Brigadier in command of the brigade.

It participated in the first day's brilliant success at Gettysburg, was engaged also on the second day, and on the third the brigade was part of General I. R. Trimble's division, General Pender having been mortally wounded, in support of Heth's division, then under Pettigrew, in the famous charge on Cemetery Ridge.

The High Watermark by Kunstler

In this charge, Archer's and Scales' brigades occupied and held for a time the Federal works, and when they retreated to the Confederate lines, Scales' Brigade had not one Field Officer left for duty, and but very few Line Officers. Its total loss was 102 killed and 322 wounded.

After the return of the regiment to Virginia it was re-organized, when Thomas S. Galloway, Jr., at one time its Major, was elected Colonel, to date from 21 September, 1863; Wm. L. Mitchell was Lieutenant-Colonel; J. H. Welborn, Adjutant; J. D. Wilder, Quartermaster; P. G.Robinson, Surgeon. Benj. A. Cheek was still Assistant Surgeon.

The Line Officers, with dates of commission, were as follows:

Company A--Captain, Wm. B. Clark, 12 October, 1862; First Lieutenant, Joseph B. Clark, 28 October, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Wm. A. Tuttle, 25 April, 1863.

Company B--Captain ________; First Lieutenant, Robert A. Tate, 1 August, 1863; Second Lieutenant, George H. Gardin, 11 May, 1863; Second Lieutenant Samuel P. Tate, 1 August, 1863.

Company E--Captain, Robert W. Cole, 15 September 1863; First Lieutenant, Andrew J. Busick, 15 September, 1863; Second Lieutenant Oliver C. Wheeler, 25 April, 1863.

Company F--Captain ___________; First Lieutenant, David Edwards, 20 October, 1862; Second Lieutenant Shadrach G. Caudle, 25 April, 1863.

Company G--Captain, George A. Graves, 1 May, 1862; First Lieutenant, Peter Smith, 10 May, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Robert L. Mitchell, 1 May, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Martin H. Cobb, 25 April, 1863.

Company H--Captain, Thomas T. Slade, 23 October, 1863; First Lieutenant, John K. Martin, 25 May, 1863; Second Lieutenant Mason T. Mitchell, 25 April, 1863; Second Lieutenant, C. L. Graves, 25 May, 1863.

Company I--Captain, Gaston V. Lamb, 18 July, 1862; First Lieutenant, Burwell W. Burkhead, 1 July, 1863; Second Lieutenant Richard W. Winburne, 1 August, 1863; Second Lieutenant, Robert A. Glenn, 1 August, 1863.

Company K--Captain, W. B. Gooding, 13 November, 1862; First Lieutenant, __________, Second Lieutenant, E. J. Dobson, 5 November, 1862.

Company L--Captain Lee Russell, ___________; First Lieutenants Yancey M. C. Johnson, 1 August, 1863; Second Lieutenant Oliver M. Pike, 15 July, 1863; Second Lieutenant, Calvin H. Winborne, 1 August, 1863.

Company M--Captain, Columbus F. Siler, 2 May, 1863; First Lieutenant, James M. Robbins, 2 May, 1863; Second Lieutenant, John M. Lawrence, 25 April, 1863.

Under this organization the regiment shared in the events of the "campaign of strategy" in October and November, 1863, on the Rapidan, and endured the cold and other privations in the affair at Mine Run, 2 December. Going into winter quarters after that, there were no occurrences of much note until the opening of the great campaign in the Spring of 1864.

Major General Cadmus M. Wilcox had been assigned to the command of the division, General Pender having died of the wound received at Gettysburg, and this division with that of Heth, at the Wilderness 5 May, withstood and repulsed with heavy loss every attack of Grant's forces on that memorable day.

So severe had been the struggle that at night when General Heth asked permission to readjust his lines, much disordered by the persistent fighting, General A. P. Hill simply replied: "Let the tired men sleep," a decision which, with the delay of Longstreet's corps the next morning in getting into position, had nearly caused disaster.
The Twenty-second bore well its part here, and so on, always maintaining its high reputation, at Spottsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, and through the weary winter of hardship and want of 1864-'65, borne with fortitude, in the trenches at Petersburg; on the trying retreat at Appomattox in April, 1865, where the sad end came.

Cold Harbor--Petersburg

After Grant's disastrous attack upon Lee at Cold Harbor in June, 1864, he withdrew from Lee's front and began movement which transferred his operations to the vicinity of Petersburg.

To conceal this movement Warren's Corps was sent up the roads towards Richmond to make demonstrations, and to meet Warren, Wilcox's Division, in which were Scales' Brigade and the Twenty-second regiment, was sent.

After a hard march Gary's Brigade of cavalry was found falling back before a heavy force and Lane's and Scales' Brigades of infantry were at once ordered forward. These drove back Wilson's cavalry division for one and a half miles, and secured and held a cross-roads near a place called Smith's Shop, in the vicinity of the Frazier's Farm battlefield.

In this fight and advance (of more than an hour) the centre of the Twenty-second Regiment passed at one time over an open knoll, which had been cleared for artillery two years before, where they received the full fire of Wilson's men and lost heavily, but still pressed on, driving the enemy before them, and held the position as mentioned above.

Reams Station

In his account of this action in August, 1864, Swinton errs in saying that three charges were made by the Confederates, two of which were repulsed. The first charge, as he terms it, was merely an advance of a battalion of sharpshooters, under Captain John Young, which drove in the Federal pickets and skirmishers. Captain Young reported that there was only a line of picket pits in our front.

Under this impression the Sixteenth, Twenty-second and Thirty-fourth North Carolina regiments, and Benning's Georgia Brigade, were ordered to charge.

On reaching the edge of the woods, Benning's men, seeing a strong line of works, well manned, in their front were halted. The Twenty-second Regiment charged up to the works, but, having lost their support on their right, were withdrawn. They were not repulsed. Private Ellison, of Company L, snatched an United States flag from the earth works in this charge, and brought it away with him.

Shortly after this Lane's, MacRae's and another brigade of Heth's Division, with the Twenty-second Regiment covering their left flank, charged the position and carried the works in splendid style. Hampton's cavalry shared in the attack and rendered most efficient service.

An incident worthy of record occurred in the winter of 1864-'65, while the Twenty-second North Carolina was on duty on the lines south of Petersburg, Va., in support of Battery 45. General A. P. Hill, commanding the corps, was desirous of getting certain information with regard to the force and position of the enemy in his front. This he thought might be obtained by the capture of some prisoners, and he directed General A. M. Scales, commanding the brigade, to make a foray on the skirmish line or picket posts of the enemy opposite his lines.

General Scales detailed Captain C. Frank Siler, of Company M, of the Twenty-second North Carolina to undertake the expedition with a part of the sharpshooters of the brigade.

Captain Young, who commanded the sharpshooters, was temporarily absent. Siler was ordered to report to General James H. Lane and get a reinforcement from the sharpshooters of that brigade, but before making the move, Siler wished to reconnoitre the position.

To effect this thoroughly, he adopted a ruse. Crossing to the Yankee lines he offered, with the usual signals, to exchange newspapers, as was often done. While haggling about the exchange he examined the positions and its surroundings carefully and selected a path by which it might be approached advantageously.

Returning to his command, he rode over to General Lane's quarters to get the reinforcements as ordered. General Scales having loaned him a horse for the purpose.

Now, for the better defense of Battery 45, the men of the Twenty-second had dammed up a small stream in its vicinity which had the effect of collecting much water in the battery's front and rendering the approach to it very difficult. Along the top of this dam was the shortest route between the two brigades, and over it Siler attempted to ride.

It was very dark, however, and as he afterwards discovered, his horse was "moon-eyed," and in consequence, horse and man tumbled off the dam into the water and mud seventeen feet below. Nothing daunted, and in spite of cold and bruises, he fished himself and horse out, and after much tribulation he succeeded, "accoutred as he was," in finding Major Wooten, who commanded Lane's sharpshooters, and got the detail he wanted.

Uniting them with his own men they all proceeded quietly to the Yankee rifle-pits by the path Siler had previously selected. Arrived at the pits, they found all there asleep except a sentinel in front of the works, upon whom they closed before he could discharge his piece.

The sentry ran into the works and tried to use his bayonet, but Siler turned it aside and secured him before he could give the alarm. The command then swept up and down the rifle pits, and after capturing sixty men, made good their retreat with their prisoners, to the Confederate lines, not, however, without receiving a heavy fire from the Yankees, who had recovered from their surprise, which owing to the darkness, fortunately did no damage.

From some of the prisoners captured all information wanted was obtained, and Captain Siler and his men were highly complimented for their gallant action.

Southerland's Station

An incident, well worth recording, happened near this station, after our troops had evacuated the works on Hatcher's Run. Colonel Galloway of the Twenty-second Regiment, who was temporarily in command of Scales' Brigade, sent Companies I, L, and M, of that regiment--all of Randolph County--under command of Captain C. F. Siler, of Company M, to hold a woods a little in advance of his right.

An ammunition wagon had broken down near by and Captain Siler had several boxes of cartridges carried to his line and distributed. From this position he repelled with his small command, two attacked of a full regiment, and held it until he was ordered to retire.

Captain Siler was an excellent man and officer, equally at home in a fight or a revival, and efficient in both.

Colonel Thos. S. Galloway is still living. [1901] His residence is now in Somerville, Tenn.

Dr. Benj. A. Clark of Warren County, who was with the Twenty-second Regiment as Assistant Surgeon, or as Surgeon, during the entire war, reported in the Spring of 1865 that, up to that time, the death roll of the regiment amounted to 580.

It is worthy of note that the brunt of the fight on the right in the first day's struggle at the Wilderness in May, 1865, was borne by Heth's and Wilcox's divisions of A. P. Hill's Corps. They maintained their positions and repelled all attacks all day, of a superior force, successfully. The Twenty-second Regiment was in Wilcox's Division, and was heavily engaged.

The Twenty-second Regiment served throughout the war in the Army of Northern Virginia, and participated actively in every action of consequence in which that army was engaged, except their first battle of Manassas.

At Seven Pines, Company A, of the regiment, took into action one hundred men, of whom eighteen were killed, or mortally wounded, besides the Captain, Thos. F. Jones.

At Shepherdstown four were killed out of thirty engaged.

At Chancellorsville eight out of thirty-five; at Gettysburg four out of thirty.

In all, out of 180 who served with the company during the whole period of the war, 44 were killed outright, 10 were discharged as disabled by wounds, 13 were discharged under the provisions of the Conscript Act, and 23 died of sickness.

Private A. J. Dula, of Company A, was standing very near General "Stonewall" Jackson, when the latter received his death wound at Chancellorsville.

In Vol. 125, Official Records Union and Confederate Armies p. 816, claim is made by Corporal Thomas Cullen, of Company I, Eighty- second New York Volunteers, that he captured the flag of the Twenty- second North Carolina Regiment in the fight at Bristoe Station, Va., 14 October, 1863, "while advancing under fire."

The claim is a very absurd one, and looks like a bid by the corporal for a little notoriety at the expense of the truth. The Twenty-second North Carolina was not in the engagement at Bristoe at all, nor did any part of Scales' Brigade participate in that action.

In further proof, if it were needed, the statement of the Colonel then in command of the Twenty-second Regiment, with regard to the claim, is appended, and it will be seen that his denial of the claim is most positive.

His remarks are in reply to an inquiry from the writer who wished to have the Colonel's official corroboration of his own knowledge of the facts in the case.:

In reply I have to say, and I do so emphatically, that the statement is untrue. I was, at the time of that action, Colonel in command of the Twenty-second Regiment North Carolina Troops, and know positively that my regiment was not engaged at Bristoe at all. We did not arrive on the field until the fighting was over. I can further state that the Twenty-second North Carolina Regiment never lost a flag while I commanded it, from 23 September, 1863 to Appomattox.

Very Truly your friend,
Thomas S. Galloway

Late Colonel Twenty-second Regiment, N.C. Troops, Infantry.
Somerville, Tenn.
15 November, 1900.

It may not be amiss to add that Corporal Cullen is reported as stating that he "captured the flag of the Twenty-second or Twenty-eighth North Carolina Regiment at Bristoe Station, 14 October, 1863, while advancing under fire."

His statement as to the Twenty-eighth North Carolina is as untrue as that as to the Twenty-second. The Twenty-eighth Regiment was of General James H. Lane's Brigade, of Wilcox's Division, and was not in the engagement at Bristoe. The brigades most actively engaged in that disastrous fight were Cooke's and MacRae's, of Heth's Division, A. P. Hill's Corps.

It is significant that the report of these flag captures, of which there purport to be many, (Vol. 125, p. 814-817, Official Records Union and Confederate Armies) adds, after recounting Corporal Cullen's doughty exploit, that his is "now a prisoner of war."

Quere--As there were no exchanges of prisoners at the time, is it not probable that it was Cullen, and not the flag, that was captured at Bristoe? Something seems to have confused his memory.


Farewell to the Army of Northern Virginia

by Robert E. Lee

After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources.

I need not tell the survivors of so many hard-fought battles who have remained steadfast to the last that I have consented to this result from no distrust of them; but feeling that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing that could compensate for the loss that would have attended the continuance of the contest, I determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endeared them to their countrymen. By the terms of the agreement, officers and men can return to their homes and remain until exchanged.

You may take with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully performed, and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will extend to you his blessing and protection.

With an unceasing admiration of your constancy and devotion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind and generous consideration of myself, I bid you all an affectionate farewell.


At the surrender at Appomattox 9 April, 1865, the brigade was under command of Colonel Joseph H. Hyman, of the Thirteenth Regiment, (of Edgecombe County), and numbered all told, 720 men, of whom 92 were officers, of the different grades, and 628 were enlisted men.

Of the Twenty-second Regiment there were paroled 97 men and the following officers: Colonel, Thomas S. Galloway, Jr.; Lieutenant Colonel W. L. Mitchell; Captains George H. Gardin, Company B; Robert W. Cole, Company E; Gaston V. Lamb, Company I; E. J. Dobson, Company; Yancey M. C. Johnson, Company I, Columbus F. Siler, Company M. Lieutenants: Wm. A. Tuttle, Company A; Samuel P. Tate, Company B; Andrew J. Busick, Company E; W. C. Orrell, Company E; Calvin H. Wilborne, Company L.

In Company F but eight privates "present for duty," were left, and in Company H but five. Besides those mentioned several members of the regiment, who were on detached service were paroled elsewhere.

And so the regiment was disbanded and its few surviving members sought their distant homes, with heavy hearts, indeed, at the failure of the cause they had upheld so long and so bravely, undeterred by privation and unappalled by dangers, but still sustained by the parting words of their illustrious chief, and the consciousness of right, and of duty well done.

No nobler band of men ever offered their all at the behest of the sovereign State to which they owed allegiance, and to the little squad of them, now, "in the sere, the yellow leaf," who have not yet "crossed over the river and rest under the shade of the trees," and old comrade sends warmest greeting and best wishes.

Would that his feeble efforts in attempting to preserve some portion, at least, of their record were more worthy of their matchless deeds. Few of them, if any, there were who, when all was over, might not have said in the words of St. Paul: "I have fought a good fight.... I have kept the faith."

And to those of the regiment--that larger regiment by far--who sleep their last sleep where at duty's call they laid down their lives, on the plains and hillsides of Virginia and Maryland, from the Appomattox to the Antietam, is gladly rendered the fullest meed of grateful praise.

Their fidelity and devoted sacrifice shall be celebrated in song and story, and shall be borne in loving memory while time shall last.

Lament them not!
No love can make immortal
That span which we call life
And never heroes passed to heaven's portal
From fields of grander strife.

In offering this imperfect history of the Twenty-second Regiment of North Carolina Troops in the late war between the States, the writer will say, in explanation of its many omissions and shortcomings, that during more than the last two years of its service, he had been transferred to other duty and was not a member of the regiment.

He gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to Lieutenant J. R. Cole, sometime its Adjutant, for much valuable information. He hopes the brave story of the part the regiment bore in the momentous campaigns of 1864-'65 will yet be told in full detail.

Graham Daves
New Bern, N.C.
9 April, 1901


During the twentieth century, many states placed memorials along the Seminary Ridge battle line. The North Carolina Memorial was erected to honor twenty-three regiments, three cavalry regiments, three artillery batteries, and one infantry battalion that participated in the Battle of Gettysburg.

This battle was one of the most decisive and bloody battles of the Civil War, taking place July 1 through July 4, 1863. It marked General Robert E. Lee's last effort to move the battle northward from Virginia.

Over 51,000 soldiers were killed, wounded, or captured in this battle.

The park is also the site of the Gettysburg Address, delivered by Abraham Lincoln in November 1863.

Near the main statue is a monolith containing the names of the North Carolina units that were a part of the Army of Northern Virginia. It was built under the auspices of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and was dedicated the same day as the main statue.

The North Carolina sculpture shown here was dedicated on July 3, 1929, was cast in bronze, is 15 feet, 9 inches high, with the base measuring 6'6" by 9'9".

The sculptor was none other than John Gutzon Borglum, who is most noted for his monumental carvings of the Presidents on Mount Rushmore.

Borglum was born in 1866 in Idaho, moving to Nebraska when he was seven. He attended school in Fremont and Omaha, St. Mary's College in Kansas, the Academie Julien and the Ecole de Beaux Arts, both in Paris.

His work on Mount Rushmore began in 1927, continuing until his death in 1941, when it was completed by his son, Lincoln Borglum.

IV.    Partial List of those Killed in Action of
The 22nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment
Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863.

Colonel Issac E. Avery led a North Carolina brigade in Gettysburg on July 2, 1863, that attempted to capture Union positions on Cemetery Hill. During the attack, he was mortally wounded. As Avery lay dying, he scribbled a final message for his family: "Major, tell my Father I died with my Face to the enemy, I E Avery."
"O Polly, O Polly, it's for your sake alone,
I left my dear old Mother, my Country and my home,
I left my old Mother to weap and to mourn,
I am a Rebel Soldier and far from my home,
Far from my home."

Rank---- Name--------------     Company------- Age

Pvt. Nathan David Barker ---- Co. M ----      29

Pvt. Henry Breedlove -------    Co. I ----        21

Pvt. Sowel J. Choat ----------    Co. F -------   22

Pvt. D. P. Clark -------------        Co. A -------- 19

Pvt. Samuel Claybrook -------- Co. H ------    23

Pvt. James M. Coletrane------  Co. I --------   27

Capt. Joseph T. Conley ------  Co. B

Pvt. W. S. Gardner ------          Co. E

Pvt. Ephraim W. Gray ------     Co. K ------    28

Pvt. James Hamby -----------    Co. A ------    23

Capt. Elisha C. Horney ----      Co. I ------      20

Pvt. David W. Ingram --------   Co. G

Pvt. Franklin Kellam --------     Co. H ------    36

Pvt. Jonathan F. Kellam -----  Co. E ------    22

Pvt. Hugh W. Laughrun ----    Co. B ------    29

Pvt. Wade D. Lutz -----------      Co. A ------   19

Pvt. John C. McMillan -------     Co. A ----     23

Pvt. John Mains -------------       Co. F -------  22

Pvt. Raleigh H. Martin ------      Co. H ------   19

Pvt. J. D. May --------------          Co. E ------   26

Pvt. John Samuel Nelson ----- Co. H ------   29

Lt. John H. Palmer ---------       Co. I ------     25

Cpl. Hezekiah D. Perry ------    Co. L ------    24

Pvt. W. G. Poteet -----------      Co. B ------    28

Lt. Isaiah S. Robbins ------      Co. I ------     25

Cpl. Elisha Ross ------------      Co. K ------   30

Cpl. Wesley C. Siler --------      Co. M ------  23

Pvt. William H. Sisk --------      Co. H ------  18

Pvt. James M. Smith ---------   Co. I ------   35

Pvt. William T. Smith -------     Co. H -----  37

Pvt. McKenzie C. Varner ----- Co. L ------ 27

Pvt. Jacob Washburn -------  Co. B -----  19

Pvt. Joseph Williams ------    Co. A ------ 25

The 22nd North Carolina Infantry was part of Penders Division, Scales Brigade. The other companies that made up the Brigade were 13th North Carolina, 16th North Carolina, 34th North Carolina, and the 38th North Carolina.

Losses to Scales Brigade at Gettysburg were 668.

Losses to Penders Division at Gettysburg were 2,356.